Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) Interview Questions

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Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) Interview Questions

The Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) exam verifies an information security professional’s technical and administrative expertise. Furthermore, being a globally recognized credential in the information security sector, the certification tests the candidate’s ability to effectively design, engineer, and manage an organization’s total security posture.

These interview questions will help you in your preparation for Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) Interview. Without wasting much time, let’s get started:

1. What is the primary goal of cyber security?

Data protection is the basic purpose of cyber security. To protect data from cyber-attacks, the security industry provides a triangle of three interconnected concepts. This principle is known as the CIA trio. The CIA model is designed to assist organizations in developing policies for their information security architecture. When a security breach is identified, one or more of these principles has been violated. Confidentiality, integrity, and availability are the three components of the CIA paradigm. It’s a security paradigm that guides users through many aspects of IT security.

2. Explain threat.

Any form of danger that has the potential to destroy or steal data, interrupt operations or cause widespread harm is considered a threat. Malware, phishing, data breaches, and even unscrupulous staff are all threats. Threats are expressed by threat actors, who can be individuals or groups with a range of backgrounds and motivations. Understanding risks is necessary for developing effective countermeasures and making informed cybersecurity decisions. Threat intelligence is information on threats and their perpetrators.

3. Define Vulnerability.

A vulnerability is a defect in hardware, software, personnel, or procedures that threat actors can exploit.
Vulnerabilities include physical vulnerabilities such as publicly accessible networking equipment, software vulnerabilities such as a buffer overflow vulnerability in a browser, and even human vulnerabilities such as an employee subject to phishing attacks.
The process of finding, disclosing, and resolving vulnerabilities is known as vulnerability management. A zero-day vulnerability is one for which a fix is not yet available.

4. What is risk?

Risk is formed by combining the likelihood of danger and the impact of a vulnerability. To put it another way, the risk is the likelihood that a threat agent will be successful in exploiting a vulnerability, which may be calculated using the formula:

Risk = Threat Likelihood * Vulnerability Impact

The process of recognizing all potential threats, analyzing their impact, and selecting the best course of action is known as risk management. It’s an ongoing process that looks for new threats and weaknesses on a regular basis. Depending on the response, risks can be avoided, managed, accepted, or passed on to a third party.

5. What exactly does XSS stand for?

XSS is an abbreviation for cross-site scripting. It’s a web security issue that allows an attacker to control how users interact with a vulnerable application. It allows an attacker to get around the same-origin policy, which is meant to keep websites apart. Cross-site scripting flaws allow an attacker to impersonate a target user and do any activities or access any of the victim’s data. The attacker may be able to fully handle the application’s functionality and data if the victim user has privileged access to it.

6. Define Firewall.

A firewall acts as a barrier between a local area network (LAN) and the Internet. It ensures that private resources remain private while decreasing security risks. It manages network traffic both inbound and outbound.  The connection between the two is the point of vulnerability.

7. Explain VPN.

A VPN is an abbreviation for a virtual private network. It allows you to connect your computer to a private network, establishing an encrypted connection that conceals your IP address and lets you privately share files and browse the internet while protecting your online identity.

A virtual private network, or VPN, is an encrypted connection that connects a device to a network via the Internet. The encrypted connection facilitates the safe transmission of sensitive data. It protects against unauthorized traffic eavesdropping and allows the user to work remotely.

8. Explain Black Hat.

Black Hat hackers, sometimes known as crackers, try to gain unauthorized access to a system in order to impair its operations or steal sensitive data.

Because of its hostile aim, black hat hacking is always illegal, including stealing corporate data, breaching privacy, causing system damage, and blocking network connections, among other things.

9. Evaluate White hat hackers.

White hat hackers are another term for ethical hackers. They never attempt to harm a system as part of penetration testing and vulnerability assessments; rather, they want to find flaws in a computer or network system.
Ethical hacking is not a crime, yet it is one of the most demanding jobs in the IT industry. Many companies employ ethical hackers to do penetration tests and vulnerability assessments.

10. What is Grey hat hackers?

Grey hat hackers are those who combine characteristics of both black and white hat hacking. They do not behave maliciously, but for the sake of amusement, they exploit a security hole in a computer system or network without the owner’s permission or knowledge.
Their purpose is to call the owners’ attention to the defect in exchange for gratitude or a little compensation.

11. Explain the types of Cyber Security?

Every company’s assets are made up of a range of different systems. These systems have a high cybersecurity posture, which needs cross-functional coordination. As a result, cybersecurity can be into the following sub-domains:

  • Network security is the process of employing hardware and software to protect a computer network from unauthorised access, intruders, attacks, disruption, and misuse. This security helps to safeguard an organization’s assets from both external and internal threats. Using a Firewall as an example.
  • Data security requires establishing a strong data storage system that assures data integrity and privacy during storage and transfer.
  • Identity management is the process of determining each individual’s level of access within a company. For example, restricting data access based on an individual’s work role within the firm.
  • Operational security comprises examining and deciding how to manage and secure data assets. As an example, consider storing data in an encrypted format in a database.
  • Mobile security is the protection of organisational and personal data stored on mobile devices such as cell phones, PCs, tablets, and other similar devices from a wide range of hostile attacks. These dangers include unauthorised access, device loss or theft, malware, and other threats.

12. What are the advantages of Cybersecurity?

The following are some of the benefits of implementing and maintaining cybersecurity:

  • Businesses are safeguard against cyberattacks and data breaches.
  • Data and network security are both protect.
  • Unauthorized user access is minimise
  • There is a shorter recovery time following a breach.
  • End-user and endpoint device security.
  • Regulatory adherence.
  • Consistency in operations.
  • Developers, partners, customers, stakeholders, and employees are more confident in the company’s reputation.

13. Explain botnet.

A botnet is a network of internet-connected devices infect with malware and controlled by it, such as servers, PCs, and mobile phones.
It is used to steal data, send spam, launch distribute denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, and other malicious activities, as well as to provide the user access to the device and its connection.

14. What do understand by honeypots?

Honeypots are attack targets that are set up to observe how different attackers try to exploit vulnerabilities. The same idea, which is extensively utilise in academic settings, can be employ by private organizations and governments to assess their risks.

15. Differentiate Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing.

Vulnerability assessment and penetration testing are two different terms for the same thing: securing the network environment.

  • Vulnerability assessment is a procedure for identifying, detecting, and prioritising vulnerabilities in computer systems, network infrastructure, applications, and other systems, as well as providing the firm with the information needed to correct the problems.
  • Penetration testing, often known as ethical hacking or pen-testing, is a type of security testing. It’s a technique for detecting vulnerabilities in a network, system, application, or other system and preventing attackers from exploiting them. In the context of web application security, it is most typically use to enhance a web application firewall (WAF).

16. Explain Null Session.

When a user is not authorise to use either a username or a password, a null session occurs. It can be a security issue for apps because it implies that the person initiating the request is unknown.

17. What are some examples of common cyber security attacks?

The following are examples of popular cyber security attacks:

  • Malware 
  • Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) 
  • Denial-of-Service (DoS)
  • Domain Name System Attack
  • Man-in-the-Middle Attacks 
  • SQL Injection Attack 
  • Phishing
  • Session Hijacking
  • Brute Force

18. In the context of cyber security, what do you mean by brute force?

A brute force attack is a cryptographic attack that uses a trial-and-error method to guess all possible combinations until the correct data is revealing. Cybercriminals frequently utilize this vulnerability to obtain personal information such as passwords, login credentials, encryption keys, and PINs. This is fairly simple for hackers to implement.

19. Explain Shoulder Surfing.

Shoulder surfing is a type of physical attack that involves physically staring into people’s screens while they type in a semi-public location.

20. Define Phishing.

Phishing is a type of cybercrime in which the sender pretends to be a genuine entity like PayPal, eBay, financial institutions, or friends and coworkers. They send an email, phone call, or text message with a link to a target or target in order to persuade them to click on the link. Users will be sent to a bogus website where they will be prompted to provide sensitive information such as personal information, banking and credit card information, social security numbers, usernames, and passwords. Malware will be installed on the target PCs as a result of following the link, allowing hackers to remotely control them.

21. What do you understand by two-factor authentication?

Two-factor authentication, also known as two-step verification or dual-factor authentication, is a security solution that requires users to verify their identity using two different authentication factors. This strategy is used to safeguard both the user’s credentials and the resources to which the user has access. SFA, in which the user gives only one element — usually a password or passcode — is less secure than two-factor authentication (TFA).

22. Evaluate Man-in-the-Middle Attack.

A man-in-the-middle attack is a cyber threat (a form of eavesdropping attack) in which a cybercriminal wiretaps a communication or data transmission between two people. When a cybercriminal enters a two-way discussion, they appear to be genuine participants, which allows them to gather sensitive information and respond in a variety of ways. The primary purpose of this type of attack is to gain access to personal information about our firm or our customers. A cybercriminal, for example, may intercept data flowing between the target device and the network on an unprotected Wi-Fi network.

23. Distinguish between information security and information assurance.

Data protection safeguards data against illegal access through the use of encryption, security software, and other ways.
Information Assurance, among other things, maintains the integrity of data by ensuring its availability, authentication, and secrecy.

24. Distinguish between VPN and VLAN.

VLANs are used by businesses to aggregate devices scattered across multiple remote sites into a single broadcast domain. VPNs, on the other hand, protect data transmission between two offices within the same organization or between offices within separate firms. Individuals use it for their personal needs as well.
A VPN subtype is a VLAN. VPN is an abbreviation for Virtual Private Network, and it is a technology that establishes a virtual tunnel for safe data transmission over the Internet.

Because it provides for encryption and anonymization, a VPN is a more advanced, but more expensive, option. A VLAN divides a network into logical segments for easier management, but it lacks the security characteristics of a VPN. A virtual local area network reduces the number of routers needed while also lowering the cost of deploying routers. A VPN increases the overall efficiency of a network.
NordVPN and ZenMate are two examples of VPNs.

25. What exactly do you mean by perimeter-based and data-based security?

Perimeter-based cybersecurity is putting in place security measures to keep hackers out of your network. Anyone attempting to break into your network is inspected, and any suspicious infiltration efforts are stopped.

The employment of security measures on the data itself refer to as “data-based protection.” It is not influence by network connectivity. As a consequence, you can maintain track of and protect your data regardless of where it is store, who accesses it, or which connection is use.

26. Which is more trustworthy, SSL or HTTPS?

  • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is a secure technology that enables two or more parties to securely interact over the internet. It works on top of HTTP to provide security. It is functional at the Presentation layer.
  • HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) is a protocol that combines HTTP and SSL to provide a more secure browsing experience. HTTPS utilises the top four tiers of the OSI model, namely the Application Layer, Presentation Layer, Session Layer, and Transport Layer.
  • In terms of security, SSL outperforms HTTPS.

27. What exactly do you mean by a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack?

It is a type of cyber threat or malicious attempt in which fraudsters exploit Internet traffic to fulfill legitimate requests to the target or its surrounding infrastructure, thereby disrupting the target’s regular traffic. The requests originate from a variety of IP addresses, which might render the system unworkable, overwhelm its servers, causing them to slow down or go offline, or prohibit an organisation from carrying out its critical tasks.

28. How can we prevent distributed denial of service (DDoS)?

The following methods will help you stop and prevent DDOS attacks:

  • Create a service denial response strategy.
  • Keep your network infrastructure in good working order.
  • Use basic network security measures.
  • Maintain a strong network architecture.
  • Recognize the Red Flags
  • Consider DDoS as a service.

29. In the context of cyber security, distinguish between IDS and IPS.

  • Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) scan and monitor network traffic for indications that attackers are attempting to infiltrate or steal data from your network by employing a known cyber threat. By comparing current network behaviour to a known threat database, intrusion detection systems (IDS) identify a variety of activities such as security policy violations, malware, and port scanners.
  • Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) can install in the same network space as firewalls, between the outside world and the internal network. If a packet has a known security risk, an IPS will prevent network traffic based on a security profile.

30. Explain Network Sniffing.

Sniffing is a method of analyzing data packets sent across a network. This can be performe by employing specialise software or hardware. Sniffing can be used for a number of things, including:

  • Take note of sensitive information, such as a password.
  • Listen in on chat conversations.
  • Keep an eye on a data package as it travels over a network.

31. What do you understand by  System Hardening?

System hardening, in general, refers to a collection of tools and methods for mitigating vulnerabilities in an organization’s systems, applications, firmware, and other components.
The purpose of system hardening is to reduce security risks by reducing potential attacks and compressing the attack surface of the system.
The following are the several types of system hardening:

  • Database fortification
  • The operating system is being harden.
  • The application is being harden.
  • Server fortification
  • Strengthening the network

32. What exactly is a Domain Name System (DNS) attack?

DNS hijacking is a type of cyberattack in which cyber thieves take advantage of vulnerabilities in the Domain Name System to redirect users to malicious websites and steal data from targeted workstations. Because the DNS system is such an integral component of the internet infrastructure, it poses a significant cybersecurity risk.

33. Can you tell the difference between spear phishing and phishing?

Spear phishing is a sort of phishing attack that targets only one or a limited number of high-value targets. Phishing typically requires sending a large number of people a bulk email or message. It means that spear-phishing will be much more individualized and possibly more well-research (for the individual), whereas phishing will be more akin to a true fishing excursion in which whoever swallows the hook is caught.

34. What exactly do you mean when you say ARP poisoning?

Address Resolution Protocol Poisoning is a sort of cyber-attack in which a network device converts an IP address to a physical address. The receiving machine responds with its physical address after the host sends an ARP broadcast over the network.It is the practice of providing false addresses to a switch in order for it to associate them with the IP address of a valid network computer and hijack traffic.

35. What is the distinction between a virus and a worm?

A virus is a piece of malicious executable code that is attach to another executable file and has the ability to change or destroy data. When a virus-infected computer application runs, it performs actions such as deleting a file from the computer system.
Worms and viruses are similar in that they do not alter the program. It keeps multiplying, causing the computer system to slow down. Worms can be controlled with remote control. Worms’ main purpose is to deplete system resources.

Conclusion for Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) Interview Questions

Brushing up on your study notes and reviewing as many interview questions as possible is all it takes to prepare for your next interview. Maintain a cool, collected approach during the interview, and don’t get all up if you don’t know the answer to a question. Think carefully and make sure you understand the question before replying. Maintaining a calm demeanor when using your CISSP knowledge would surely impress your prospective employer.

The areas included in this Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) Interview Questions essay are the most in-demand skill sets that recruiters want in an Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) Professional.